Major groups of bacteria

medical and industrial importance

Gram positive group

  1. Cocci
  2. Lactic Acid Bacteria
  3. Rods
  4. Other groups

 

  1. Cocci (general)

Important genera and species

Deinococcus

Family: Micrococcaceae

Micrococcus

Staphylococcus

Causes a wide range of infections and disease: including toxic shock syndrome, food poisoning and most postoperative infections

Family Peptococcaceae

 

  1. Lactic Acid Bacteria

General characteristics

homofermentative: lactic acid (up to 85%) end product of glucose fermentation

heterofermentation: lactic acid, ethanol and CO2 end products of glucose fermentation

Important genera and species

Streptococcus

Enterococci

Leuconostoc

Lactobacillus

Other Lactic acid bacteria

 

  1. Rods

i. Endospore formers

General characteristics

Important genera and species

Bacillus

B.sphaericus

B.polymyxa

B.subtilis

B.brevis

B.stearothermophilus

B.licheniformis

B.amyloliquefaciens

B.cereus

B.anthracis

B.popilliae

B.thuringiensis

Clostridium

C.tetani

C.botulinum

C.perfringens

 

Sporosarcina

Desulfotomaculum

 

ii. Regular non spore forming rods

General characteristics

Important genera and species

Listeria

Erysipelothrix

 

iii. Irregular non-spore forming rods

General characteristics

Important genera and species

Corynebacterium

Propionobacterium

 

  1. Special groups

i. Actinomycetes

General characteristics

Important genera and species

Streptomyces

Streptomyces spp.: tetracyclines (broad spectrum)

S.griseus: streptomycin (most gram negative bacteria)

S.venezuelae: chloramphenical (broad spectrum)

S.orientalis: vancomycin (gram positive bacteria)

S.fradiae: neomycin (broad spectrum)

S.erythreus: erythromycin (most gram positive bacteria)

S.noursei: nystatin (fungi)

Nocardia

Frankia

 

ii. Mycobacteria

Mycobacterium

 

 

Bacteria with no cell wall

Mycoplasmas (class: mollicutes)

General characteristics

Important genera and species

Mycoplasma

Toxicity: end products (ammonia, peroxides)

Spiroplasma