1. A technique in which electricity is used to make cells competent is ____________.

2. Naked DNA can be taken up into cells via the process of ___________.

3. _____________ occurs when a virus moves DNA from one cell to another.

4. A virus which infects bacterial cells is known as a _____________.

5. A ____________ bacteriophage cycle results in the rupture of the host cell.

6. Persistence of a prophage in the DNA of a cell without prophage replication or lysis of the bacterial cell is known as ____________.

7. Genetic information transferred from one bacteria to another using a pilus is known as _____________.

8. F+ cells contain a fertility _____________.

9. An ____________ plasmid contains both the genetic information needed for a sex pilus as well as parts of the bacterial chromosome.

10. Plasmids that can transfer between two different bacterial species are said to be _____________.

11. In ____________ transduction, only genes near the prophage are transferred to another bacterium.

12. ____________ plasmids give a cell the ability to survive in the presence of certain antibiotics.

13. Bacteriocidal proteins called ____________ are produced by some bacterial plasmids.

14. Mobile genetic elements called ____________ were first found in the 1940s by Barbara McClintock.

15. Increasing the number of plasmids in a cell so that more product is produced is a technique known as gene _____________.

16. ____________ enzymes are used to cut DNA at specific sites.

17. Joining two pieces of DNA together requires the use of the enzyme ____________ to reunite the ends of the two DNA fragments.

1. Explain why an E. coli strain that is His- is an auxotroph and one that is Lac- is not. (Hint: Think about what E. coli does with histidine and Lactose)

2. Explain why the insertion of a transposon leads to a mutation

3. What are silent mutations and why do they occur? From the knowledge of the genetic code, why do you think most silent mutations affect the third position of
    the codons?

4. Give an example of one biological, one chemical and one physical mutation and describe the mechanisms by which each causes a mutation.

5. Describe the different mechanisms by which DNA mutations is repaired in a cell.

6. DNA is transferred in the microbial world by three mechanisms. Describe these.

7. Describe how you would isolate a mutant that require histidine for growth and was resistant to penicillin.

8. Sometimes a point mutation does not change the phenotype. List all the reasons you can why this is so.

Send comments, errors and suggestions to Professor Bharat Patel

Created: 24 Sep 2002
Modified: 30 Jul 2010